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Linux系统下 MySQL 5.7和8.0 版本安装指南

时间:2019-01-04  来源:未知  作者:admin666

一. 准备工作

1 删除本地CentOS7中的mariadb:

查看系统中是否已安装 mariadb 服务:

rpm -qa | grep mariadb

yum list installed | grep mariadb

如果已安装则删除 mariadb及其依赖的包:

yum -y remove mariadb-libs-5.5.44-2.el7.centos.x86_64

关闭防火墙:

firewall-cmd --state #查看防火墙状态

systemctl stop firewalld.service #关闭防火墙

systemctl is-enabled firewalld.service;echo $? #查看防火墙是否开机自启

systemctl disable firewalld.service #禁止防火墙开机启动

MySQL依赖于libaio 库,安装libaio

yum search libaio

yum install libaio

2.下载安装包

mkdir /data

cd /data/

yum -y install wget

wget https://cdn.mysql.com//Downloads/MySQL-5.7/mysql-5.7.20-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64.tar.gz

3. 解压、重命名

tar -zxvf mysql-5.7.20-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64.tar.gz -C /data

mv /data/mysql-5.7.20-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64/ /data/mysql57

mkdir mysql #数据目录与安装目录分离,便于以后MySQL升级

二. 安装MySQL

1.添加用户和组

groupadd mysql

useradd mysql -g mysql

2.配置文件

/etc/my.cnf

主要参数及取值如下:

(相关取值,请根据实际环境做调整,如内存配置参数等)

#######
[client]  
socket = /data/mysql/data/mysql.sock 
default-character-set=utf8mb4
#loose-local-infile=0
[mysqld]
log_bin_trust_function_creators=1

secure_file_priv='/tmp'

########dir settings########
basedir = /data/mysql57
datadir = /data/mysql/data
pid-file = /data/mysql/data/mysql.pid
socket = /data/mysql/data/mysql.sock 
tmpdir = /data/mysql/tmp
log-bin = /data/mysql/mysql_log/mysql-bin
log-error = /data/mysql/mysql_log/mysql.err
general_log_file=/data/mysql/mysql_log/mysql.genlog
slow_query_log_file = /data/mysql/mysql_log/mysql_slow_new.log
relay_log = /data/mysql/mysql_log/relay.log

########server setting#######
#sql_mode = "ONLY_FULL_GROUP_BY,STRICT_TRANS_TABLES,NO_ZERO_IN_DATE,NO_ZERO_DATE,ERROR_FOR_DIVISION_BY_ZERO,NO_AUTO_CREATE_USER,NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTION"
server-id = 2022
port = 3306
character-set-server=utf8mb4
collation_server=utf8mb4_unicode_ci
lower_case_table_names = 0
skip_name_resolve = 1
#max_connect_errors = 1000
max_connections = 2000
thread_cache_size=256
#thread_stack= 262144
#back_log=80
max_allowed_packet = 134217728
event_scheduler = 1 
local-infile=0
# lower_case_table_names = 1
explicit_defaults_for_timestamp = 1
expire_logs_days = 15
log_bin_trust_function_creators =1

####.frm/.ibd files qty related
open_files_limit=65535
innodb_open_files=65535
table_open_cache=65535
table_definition_cache=65535

#### seesion buffer related
read_buffer_size = 262144
read_rnd_buffer_size = 524288
sort_buffer_size = 8388608
join_buffer_size = 8388608

####memory table size 
tmp_table_size =67108864
max_heap_table_size=67108864

####timeout
interactive_timeout = 1800
wait_timeout = 1800
# connect_timeout=10

########slow query ########
slow_query_log = 1
log_slow_slave_statements = 1
log_queries_not_using_indexes = 1
log_throttle_queries_not_using_indexes = 10
long_query_time = 1
#min_examined_row_limit = 10000

########innodb settings########
innodb_buffer_pool_size = 193273528320
innodb_buffer_pool_instances = 16 
innodb_buffer_pool_dump_pct = 40
innodb_lru_scan_depth = 2048
innodb_page_cleaners = 16
#innodb_purge_threads = 4
innodb_sort_buffer_size = 67108864
#innodb_file_per_table = 1
#innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit = 1

innodb_undo_log_truncate = 1
innodb_undo_tablespaces = 3 
innodb_max_undo_log_size = 2147483648
innodb_purge_rseg_truncate_frequency = 128

innodb_log_file_size = 107甘蔗3d斗地主3741824
innodb_log_files_in_group = 3
innodb_log_buffer_size = 16777216
innodb_flush_met冷聚变hod = O_DIRECT
innodb_flush_neighbors = 0
innodb_print_all_deadlocks = 1

innodb_strict_mode = 1
#innodb_lock_wait_timeout = 50

innodb_io_capacity = 32768
innodb_io_capacity_max = 65536
innodb_thread_concurrency = 32
innodb_write_io_threads = 8
innodb_read_io_threads = 8

########replication settings########
master_info_repository = TABLE
relay_log_info_repository = TABLE

gtid_mode = on
enforce_gtid_consistency = 1
binlog_gtid_simple_recovery=1
relay_log_recovery = 1

slave-parallel-type = LOGICAL_CLOCK
slave-parallel-workers = 16
slave_transaction_retries=128
slave_preserve_commit_order=1

log_slave_updates=1
binlog_format = ROW
log_timestamps=system

binlog_rows_query_log_events = 1
binlog_row_image='full' 
slave_skip_errors = ddl_exist_errors

########semi sync replication settings########
##plugin_dir=/data/mysql/plugin/
#plugin_load = "rpl_semi_sync_master=semisync_master.so;rpl_semi_sync_slave=semisync_slave.so"
#rpl_semi_sync_master_enabled = 1
#rpl_semi_sync_master_timeout = 5000
#rpl_semi_sync_slave_enabled = 1

[mysqldump]
quick

说明:

请一定记得上面 配置模板文件中的server-id 参数一定要修改。

否则在配置 主从复制,或者MHA时会报错。

例如错误信息 :

2018-10-09T16:13:53.205115+08:00 11 [ERROR] [MY-013117] [Repl] Slave I/O for channel '': Fatal error: The slave I/O thread stops because master and slave have equal MySQL server ids; these ids must be different for replication to work (or the --replicate-same-server-id option must be used on slave but this does not always make sense; please check the manual before using it). Error_code: MY-013117

3. 创建目录并授权

cd /data/mysql

mkdir mysql_log

chown -R mysql.mysql mysql_log/

mkdir tmp

chown -R mysql.mysql tmp/

 说明:

有时候,可能我们只是将MYSQL的二进制文件从其它的服务器Copy至本地。

例如我们在安装MYSQL8.0 时,安装文件从其它的服务,Copy到本地,文件命名为mysql80。如下图:

此时还需要执行以下权限,所以 我手动增加了一下权限,执行代码如下:

chmod -R 755 /data/mysql80/bin/

4.初始化MySQL

/data/mysql57/bin/mysqld --defaults-file=/etc/my.cnf --initialize --user=mysql --basedir=/data/mysql57 --datadir=/data/mysql/data

说明:

主参数--defaults-file=/etc/my.cnf必须紧接在mysqld后面,如果做第二个以后的参数加入时,则会出现报错:

[ERROR] unknown variable 'defaults-file=/etc/my.cnf'!

注意密码:5.7初始化后会生成一个临时密码,存在mysql.err

[Note] A temporary password is generated for root@localhost: XXXXXXXX

也就是root@localhost:后的字符串。

5.添加到MySQL启动脚本到系统服务,并且设置开启启动

cp -a /data/mysql57/support-files/mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysqld

设置开机启动和检查是否成功

chkconfig mysqld on
chkconfig --list | grep mysqld

6. 创建mysql软链接至/usr/bin下

ln -s /data/mysql57/bin/mysql /usr/bin

7.启动MySQL服务

service mysqld start

说明:

如果还是使用的Copy文件的方式,例如我们前面 Copy的mysql80 二进制文件, 此处就会报错:

此时 还要执行以下赋权命令 :

chmod -R 755 ./mysql.server  (这个文件是 /data/mysql80/support-files)

和  

chmod -R 755 /etc/init.d/mysqld

8. 登录MySQL,修改root密码

mysql -uroot -pXXXXXXX 
mysql> set password=password('XXXXXXX2');

说明 :

MySQL 8.0 是报错的:

ERROR 1064 (42000): You have an error in your SQL syntax; check the manual that corresponds to your MySQL server version for the right syntax to use near 'password('XXXXX')' at line 1

在登录MySQL,修改root密码时,使用就方法 SET PASSWORD=PASSWORD(‘[新密码]’) 报错。

查看网上的相关解释为:

以前版本的MySQL的密码认证插件是“mysql_native_password”,而现在使用的是“caching_sha2_password”。

解决方案:

ALTER USER 'root'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED WITH mysql_native_password BY '新密码';

FLUSH PRIVILEGES;

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